Espresso

Espresso and it’s own unique history

“Il caffè è il balsamo del cuore e dello spirito”
Giuseppe Verdi

Espresso (/ɛˈsprɛs/Italian: [esˈprɛsso]) is coffee brewed by expressing or forcing out a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans. Espresso is generally thicker than coffee brewed by other methods, has a higher concentration of suspended and dissolved solids, and has crema on top (a foam with a creamy consistency). As a result of the pressurized brewing process, the flavors and chemicals in a typical cup of espresso are very concentrated. Espresso is also the base for other drinks such as a caffè lattecappuccinocaffè macchiatocaffè mochaflat white, or caffè Americano.

Espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most coffee beverages, but because the usual serving size is much smaller, the total caffeine content is less than a mug of standard brewed coffee, contrary to a common belief. Although the actual caffeine content of any coffee drink varies by size, bean origin, roast method and other factors, the caffeine content of typical servings of espresso vs. drip brew are 120 to 170 mg vs. 150 to 200 mg.

Brewing

File:Espresso video.ogv
Espresso is made by forcing very hot water under high pressure through finely ground compacted coffee. Tamping down the coffee promotes the water’s even penetration through the grounds. This process produces an almost syrupy beverage by extracting both solid and dissolved components. The crema is produced by emulsifying the oils in the ground coffee into a colloid, which does not occur in other brewing methods. There is no universal standard defining the process of extracting espresso,[9] but there are several published definitions which attempt to place constraints on the amount and type of ground coffee used, the temperature and pressure of the water, and the rate of extraction. Generally, one uses an espresso machine to make espresso. The act of producing a shot of espresso is often termed “pulling” a shot, originating from lever espresso machines, which require pulling down a handle attached to a spring-loaded piston, forcing hot water through the coffee at high pressure. Today, however, it is more common for the pressure to be generated by an electric pump.

The technical parameters outlined by the Italian Espresso National Institute for making a “certified Italian espresso” are:

Parameter Value
Portion of ground coffee 7 ± 0.5 g (0.25 ± 0.02 oz)
Exit temperature of water from unit 88 ± 2 °C (190 ± 4 °F)
Temperature in cup 67 ± 3 °C (153 ± 5 °F)
Entry water pressure 9 ± 1 bar (131 ± 15 psi)
Percolation time 25 ± 5 seconds
Volume in cup (including crema) 25 ± 2.5 ml (0.85 ± 0.08 US fl oz)

Espresso roast

Espresso is both a coffee beverage and a brewing method. It is not a specific bean, bean blend, or roast level. Any bean or roasting level can be used to produce authentic espresso. For example, in southern Italy, a darker roast is generally preferred. Farther north, the trend moves toward slightly lighter roasts, while outside Italy a wide range is popular.

History

Angelo Moriondo, inventor of an important precursor to the espresso coffee machine

Angelo Moriondo patented a steam-driven “instantaneous” coffee beverage making device in 1884 (No. 33/256). The device is “almost certainly the first Italian bar machine that controlled the supply of steam and water separately through the coffee” and Moriondo is “certainly one of the earliest discoverers of the expresso [sic] machine, if not the earliest”. Unlike true espresso machines, it brewed in bulk, not as individual servings. Seventeen years later, in 1901, Luigi Bezzera, from Milan, came up with a number of improvements to the espresso machine. He patented a number of these, the first of which was applied for on 19 December 1901. It was titled “Innovations in the machinery to prepare and immediately serve coffee beverage” (Patent No. 153/94, 61707, granted on 5 June 1902). In 1905, the patent was bought by Desiderio Pavoni, who founded the La Pavoni company and began to produce the machine industrially (one a day) in a small workshop in Via Parini in Milan.

The popularity of espresso developed in various ways; a detailed discussion of the spread of espresso is given in (Morris 2007), which is a source of various statements below. In Italy, the rise of espresso consumption was associated with urbanization, espresso bars providing a place for socializing. Further, coffee prices were controlled by local authorities, provided the coffee was consumed standing up, encouraging the “stand at a bar” culture.

In the United Kingdom, espresso grew in popularity among youth in the 1950s, who felt more welcome in the coffee shops than in public houses (pubs). Espresso was initially popular, particularly within the Italian diaspora, growing in popularity with tourism to Italy exposing others to espresso, as developed by Eiscafès established by Italians in Germany. Initially, expatriate Italian espresso bars were downmarket venues, serving the working-class Italian diaspora and thus providing appeal to the alternative subculture; this can still be seen in the United States in Italian American neighborhoods, such as Boston’s North EndNew York’s Little Italy, and San Francisco’s North Beach. As specialty coffee developed in the 1980s (following earlier developments in the 1970s and even 1960s), an indigenous artisanal coffee culture developed, with espresso instead positioned as an upmarket drink.

In the 2010s, coffee culture commentators distinguish large-chain mid-market coffee as “Second Wave Coffee”, and upmarket artisanal coffee as “Third Wave Coffee“. In the Middle East and Asia, espresso is growing in popularity, with the opening of Western coffee-shop chains.

Home espresso machines have increased in popularity with the general rise of interest in espresso. Today, a wide range of home espresso equipment can be found in kitchen and appliance stores, online vendors, and department stores. The first espresso machine for home use was the Gaggia Gilda. Soon afterwards, similar machines such as the Faema Faemina, FE-AR La Peppina and VAM Caravel followed suit in similar form factor and operational principles. These machines still have a small but dedicated share of fans. Until the advent of the first small electrical pump-based espresso machines such as the Gaggia Baby and Quickmill 810, home espresso machines were not widely adopted. In recent years, the increased availability of convenient counter-top fully automatic home espresso makers and pod-based espresso serving systems has increased the quantity of espresso consumed at home. The popularity of home espresso making parallels the increase of home coffee roasting. Some amateurs pursue both home roasting coffee and making espresso.

Shot variables and Espresso-based drinks

 

A traditional macchiato as served in Italy

In addition to being served alone, espresso is frequently blended, notably with milk – either steamed (without significant foam), wet foamed (“microfoam“), or dry foamed, and with hot water. Notable milk-based espresso drinks, in order of size, include: macchiatocappuccinoflat white, and latte; other milk and espresso combinations include latte macchiatocortado and galão, which are made primarily with steamed milk with little or no foam. Espresso and water combinations include Americano and long black. Other combinations include coffee with espresso, sometimes called “red eye” or “shot in the dark”.[40]

In order of size, these may be organized as follows:

  • Traditional macchiato: 35–40 ml, one shot (30 ml) with a small amount of milk (mostly steamed, with slight foam so there is a visible mark)
  • Modern macchiato: 60 ml or 120 ml, one or two shots (30 or 60 ml), with 1:1 milk
  • Cortado: 60 ml, one shot with 1:1 milk, little foam
  • Piccolo Latte: 90 ml, one shot with 1:2 milk, little foam
  • Galão: 120 ml, one shot with 1:3 milk, little foam
  • Flat white: 150 ml, one or two shots (30 or 60 ml), with 1:4 or 2:3 milk, and a small amount (usually 1/4 inch) microfoam.
  • Cappuccino: a very popular frothed milk and espresso drink with no generally-accepted volume standards, but usually served at 120 to 160 ml., including a single or (more commonly) double shot of espresso.
  • Latte: 240–600 ml, two or more shots (60 ml), with 1:3–1:9 milk

Methods of preparation differ between drinks and between baristas. For macchiatos, cappuccino, flat white, and smaller lattes and Americanos, the espresso is brewed into the cup, then the milk or water is poured in. For larger drinks, where a tall glass will not fit under the brew head, the espresso is brewed into a small cup, then poured into the larger cup; for this purpose a demitasse or specialized espresso brew pitcher may be used. This “pouring into an existing glass” is a defining characteristic of the latte macchiato and classic renditions of the red eye. Alternatively, a glass with “existing” water may have espresso brewed into it – to preserve the crema – in the long black. Brewing onto milk is not generally done.

After 130 years, espresso making became an art, a movement that combining “latte art”, roasting methods and speciality brews that conquered the world. At our roasting coffee shop , we still follow coffee tradition. For those reasons we seek particular varieties from microlot cultivators from well known countries (Brazil, Jamaica, Peru, Colombia, Guatemala, Ethiopia, e.t.c.) that we roast, grind and offer to our daily clients and from our  e-shop.

See our coffee varieties

 

Source : Wiki